Radiation therapy frequently leads to radiation dermatitis, a condition that affects a significant proportion of patients undergoing treatment, with rates reaching up to 85%. This condition can result in moderate-to-severe skin reactions, characterized by distinct changes like swelling, redness, pigmentation disturbances, and tissue necrosis11. Radiation dermatitis can present as acute erythema and peeling, or as chronic effects, including skin thinning, visible blood vessels (telangiectasias), and fibrosis12. Acute radiation dermatitis appears as skin lesions caused by ionizing radiation and typically emerges within days or weeks after treatment, while chronic radiation effects may manifest months or even years after radiation therapy. The impact of radiation therapy on healthy tissues is evident in cell death, particularly noticeable in regenerating tissues like the epidermis and mucosal epithelia13.
Radiation dermatitis can manifest as acute erythema and desquamation, or as chronic effects including skin atrophy, telangiectasias, and fibrosis14. Chronic radiation can be observed months or years after the radiation therapy unlike acute radiation that can be seen days or weeks after the treatment. The effect of radiation therapy has on healthy tissues can be even seen by cell death and it is easily shown on renewing tissues like the epidermis and mucosal epithelia15.